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Salty Sam’s Fun Blog for Children

Number 156

Antarctica

 

Hello Everyone

 

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Last week in school, Bill and Bob were learning about hot deserts, and this week, they were learning about a cold one – Antarctica.

 

l expect that you would like to know what they learnt.

 

This is a land situated around the South Pole. lt is nearly twice the size of Australia. The name means ‘the opposite to the Arctic’.

 

Almost all of it is covered by an ice sheet, which on average is about a mile thick. That is much higher than Britain’s tallest mountain. ln fact, this ice covering is so heavy that it has pressed the land down to a lower level than it once was – by about 500 metres!

 

Antarctica contains about 90% of all the ice on the planet.

 

lf all that ice melted, the sea levels would rise about 60 metres, drowning all the low lying countries.

 

Nobody lives on Antarctica except a few thousand scientists and engineers in buildings especially built to withstand the cold. These are buildings called research stations – oh, and there are a lot of penguins and seals as well – but no polar bears.

 

Antarctica gets very little rain or snow but plenty of wind and it is the coldest place on earth.   The temperature can reach minus 80° C!

 

ln spite of the harsh weather conditions, Antarctica was once voted the friendliest place on Earth to visit.  smile1 (2)

 

lt is colder than the Arctic because it is larger and, therefore, seas that would raise temperatures are further away from its centre.

 

About 50 million years ago, lush jungles grew in this desolate place because it was situated much nearer to the equator. Over millions of years this land drifted south and the weather consequently changed.

 

During the Antarctic winter, it never gets properly light for weeks because the sun doesn’t rise above the horizon and in summer it never gets properly dark for weeks because the sun doesn’t set.

 

This is because it is at the bottom of the world in a place situated furthest away from the Equator. So it is tipped right away from the sun in the winter and then tipped towards the sun in the summer.

 

ln the dry valleys that make up less than 2% of the continent, it hasn’t rained for at least 2 million years. NASA tested equipment they planned to send to Mars there because the terrain is quite similar to the surface of Mars.

 

lt is also a very good place to observe the stars, because there is so little pollution and the skies are very clear.

 

Nobody knew that Antarctica existed before 1820. A Norwegian, Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole in December 1911.

 

And yes, just like in story books the pole is marked with a red and white striped pole – of course someone did put it there!  smile1 (2)

 

 

Bye bye everyone – don’t forget to subscribe to my blog!

 

Love and kisses

 

Salty Sam

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www.christina-sinclair.com

 

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Bill and Bob’s Joke of the Weekjokejoke

 

Bob: What do you get if you cross a snowman with a tiger?

 

Bill: l don’t know. What do you get if you cross a snowman with a tiger?

 

Bob: Frostbite!

 

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Salty Sam © Christina Sinclair 2015

Unauthorized use and/or duplication of material from this blog without express and written permission from this blog’s author and owner is strictly prohibited.

Links may be used to www.christina-sinclair.com

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Picture Gallery

 

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The South Pole facing towards and away from the sun

Fall is another word for autumn

 

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The South Pole with a line of flags

 

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There are very few houses in Antarctica

 

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Seals swim in the waters

 

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Gentoo penguins are one of the species that live on the shores of Antarctica

 

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They are well insulated against the cold and are excellent swimmers

 

 

 

 

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desk  THE SALTY SAM NEWS DESKdesk

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This week Emily thought that her doll would like to book to go on a skiing holiday next winter so Auntie Alice has knitted her a ski suit so that she will look really stylish on the ski slopes.

I expect that you would like the pattern for it too, so here it is.

 

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NEWSDESK MINIMAKE

A 12” DOLL SKI SUIT

 

JACKET BACK (KNIT ONE)

Using 3½mm knitting needles and pink dk yarn cast on 14 stitches

Knit 1 row

Purl 1 row

Purl 1 row

Knit 1 row

Repeat the last 4 rows 8 times

Cast off

 

JACKET FRONTS (KNIT TWO)

Using 3½mm knitting needles and pink dk yarn cast on 10 stitches

Knit 1 row

Purl 1 row

Purl 1 row

Knit 1 row

Repeat the last 4 rows 8 times

Cast off

 

JACKET SLEEVES (KNIT TWO)

Using 3½mm knitting needles and pink dk yarn cast on 12 stitches

Knit 1 row

Purl 1 row

Purl 1 row

Knit 1 row 

Repeat the last 4 rows 7 times

Cast off

 

JACKET HOOD (KNIT TWO)

Using 3½mm knitting needles and pink dk yarn cast on 10 stitches

Knit 1 row

Purl 1 row

Purl 1 row

Knit 1 row

Repeat the last 4 rows 6 times

Cast off

 

TO MAKE UP

Construct the jacket and hood separately.

Over-sew all seams to reduce the bulk.

Sew the shoulders together.

Sew the tops of the sleeves to the shoulders.

Sew the underarm and side seams.

Sew 3 snap fasteners and 3 tiny toggles to the front edges.

 

Sew the top and back of the hood.

Attach the bottom edge of the hood to the top edge of the jacket right sides together.

 

Crochet chains into a length of white textured yarn to ‘fatten it up’ and when it is long enough sew it to the edge of the hood and then do the same on the two cuffs.

 

The yarn in the photograph is King Cole Cuddles Chunky.

 

Neaten all ends of yarn.

 

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SKI PANTS (KNIT TWO)

Using 3½mm knitting needles and pink dk yarn cast on 16 stitches

Knit 2 rows 1 x 1 rib

Change to 4mm knitting needles

Continue knitting in stocking stitch

Cast on 2 stitches at the beginning of the next 2 rows (20 sts)

Knit 30 rows of stocking stitch

Cast off 2 stitches at the beginning of the next 2 rows (16 sts)

Stocking stitch 8 rows 

Change to 3½mm knitting needles

Casting off 1 stitch at the beginning of the next 2 rows knit 2 rows of 1 x 1 rib 

Continue to rib another 2 rows

Cast off loosely ribwise

 

TO MAKE UP 

Use over-sew stitches to make up garment (right sides together). This will reduce bulk in the seams. 

Sew back and front together to crotch.

Sew inside leg seams.

Add a length of thin elastic around the top of the waistband if desired.

 

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Quick Quiz

 

What do the following phrases mean?

 

  1. cold as charity
  2. cold comfort
  3. to get cold feet
  4. in cold blood
  5. in the cold light of day
  6. to throw cold water on/over

 

 

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BLOW MY FOGHORN!!!

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lt’s the Weekend!

 

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HOW TO MAKE MY HOODED SNOW JACKET

 

This is a knitting pattern for a lovely snow jacket for your Salty Sam toy.

 

You will need one ball of double red double knitting yarn for the jacket but extra for the snow boots. You will also need a white textured chunky yarn for the faux-fur trim and a 13cm/5 inch zip.

 

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The yarn in the photograph is King Cole Cuddles Chunky.

 

JACKET BACK (KNIT ONE)

Using 4mm knitting needles and white chunky yarn cast on 32 stitches

Knit 4 rows in 2 x 2 rib

Change to red dk yarn and continue in stocking stitch

Increase 1 stitch into every stitch (64 sts)

Starting with a purl row knit 39 rows of stocking stitch

Cast off 12 stitches at the beginning of the next 2 rows stst (40sts)

Change to 3½mm knitting needles

Knit 2 rows in 1 x 1 rib

Cast off rib-wise

 

JACKET LEFT FRONT (KNIT ONE)

Using 4mm knitting needles and white chunky yarn cast on 16 stitches

Knit 4 rows of 2 x 2 rib

Change to red dk yarn and continue in stocking stitch

Increase 1 stitch into every stitch (32 stitches)

For the next 40 rows continue in stocking stitch in the two line pattern that follows:

Knit 1 row

Slip 1, knit 2, purl to end 

Then

Cast off 12 stitches in the next knit row (20 sts)

Slip 1, knit 2, purl to end

Change to 3½mm knitting needles

Knit 2 rows of 1 x1 rib and cast off rib-wise

 

RIGHT SIDE (KNIT ONE)

Using 4mm knitting needles and white chunky yarn cast on 16 stitches

Knit 4 rows of 2 x 2 rib

Change to red dk yarn and continue in stocking stitch

Increase 1 stitch into every stitch (32 stitches)

For the next 41 rows continue in stocking stitch in the two line pattern that follows:

Slip 1, knit 1 row,

Purl to last 3 knit 3

Then

Cast off 12 stitches, purl to last 3 stitches knit 3

Change to 3½mm knitting needles

Knit 2 rows of 1 x1 rib and cast off rib-wise

 

JACKET SLEEVES (KNIT TWO)

Using 4mm knitting needles and white chunky yarn cast on 20 stitches

Knit 4 rows of 2 x 2 rib

Change to red dk yarn and continue in stocking stitch

Increase 1 stitch into every stitch (40 sts)

Cast on 2 stitches at the beginning of the next 2 rows (44 sts)

Knit 25 rows of stocking stitch and cast off loosely

 

HOOD (KNIT ONE)

If you feel that you can’t cope with the whole hood on your needles because there are too many stitches, knit it in two halves and sew together with a centre seam at the top of the hood as well as the back.

Using 4mm knitting needles and chunky white yarn cast on 60 stitches

Knit 16 rows of stocking stitch

Change to red dk yarn and increase into every stitch in the next knit row (120 sts)

Knit 50 rows of stocking stitch and cast off

 

TO MAKE UP

Sew up the shoulder seams.

Sew the tops of the sleeves to the body.

Sew the under arm and side seams.

Sew back seam of hood, turn over front edge and anchor down along the full length.

Sew the bottom of the hood to the top of the neck right sides together.

Sew a 13cm/5 inch zip into the front.

Crochet 10 chains into some white dk yarn; attach bobbles to each end after you have threaded it through the tongue of the zip.

 

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SNOW BOOTS (KNIT FOUR)

Using 4mm knitting needles and white chunky yarn cast on 16 stitches

Knit 8 rows of stocking stitch 

Change to red dk yarn

Increase 1 stitch at the beginning of the next row – knit 1 row

Increase 1 stitch at the beginning of the next row – purl 1 row

Knit 12 rows of stocking stitch

In the next 8 rows:

Decrease 1 stitch at the beginning of every row (10 sts)

Cast off

 

TO MAKE UP

Sew along side seams right sides together and turn out to right side.

 

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Please note that the material on this blog is for personal use and for use in classrooms only.

It is a copyright infringement and, therefore, illegal under international law to sell items made with these patterns.

Use of the toys and projects is at your own risk.

©Christina Sinclair Designs 2015sand

 

 

 

 

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Quick Quiz Answers

 

  1. cold as charity
  2. cold comfort
  3. to get cold feet
  4. in cold blood
  5. in the cold light of day
  6. to throw cold water on/over

 

 

  1. to be really cold
  2. no comfort/consolation at all
  3. to lose courage and abandon/back out of a plan
  4. to do something deliberately and without emotion
  5. to think rationally and without emotion
  6. to dampen someone’s enthusiasm or discourage them

 

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